albert einstein birthday

Einstein had a lifelong passion for music. [37][38][39][40], Early correspondence between Einstein and Marić was discovered and published in 1987 which revealed that the couple had a daughter named "Lieserl", born in early 1902 in Novi Sad where Marić was staying with her parents. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses. Soon the flight of his mathematical genius was so high I could not follow. This article showed that the statistics of absorption and emission of light would only be consistent with Planck's distribution law if the emission of light into a mode with n photons would be enhanced statistically compared to the emission of light into an empty mode. "[149], Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Compete in a pi inspired glass painting. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that the laws of classical mechanics could no longer be reconciled with those of the electromagnetic field. "Denunciation of German Policy is a Stirring Event". By Olivia B. He acquired Swiss citizenship in February 1901,[65] but for medical reasons was not conscripted. U.S. DOE. In September 2008 it was reported that Malcolm McCulloch of Oxford University was heading a three-year project to develop more robust appliances that could be used in locales lacking electricity, and that his team had completed a prototype Einstein refrigerator. Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death (she died in 1986[248]). He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. His mind was both more penetrating and more original than von Neumann's. Assuming the energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the experimental data. [214][215][218], In many Einstein biographies, it is claimed that Einstein referred to the cosmological constant in later years as his "biggest blunder". In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where Einstein's father and his uncle Jakob founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current. In late July 1933, he went to England for about six weeks at the personal invitation of British naval officer Commander Oliver Locker-Lampson, who had become friends with Einstein in the preceding years. Soon, this idea attracted the attention of Einstein and his assistant Otto Stern. At the age of eight, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium (now known as the Albert Einstein Gymnasium), where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left the German Empire seven years later. The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein and Niels Bohr, who were two of its founders. Their son Eduard was born in Zürich in July 1910. No interpretation no matter how subtle can (for me) change this. [192] Einstein quantitatively derived critical opalescence from a treatment of density fluctuations, and demonstrated how both the effect and Rayleigh scattering originate from the atomistic constitution of matter. When he was small he had used to have a speaking problem and which remained up to 4 years. In a German-language letter to philosopher Eric Gutkind, dated 3 January 1954, Einstein wrote: The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honorable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. [222][223] As he stated in the paper, "In what follows, I would like to draw attention to a solution to equation (1) that can account for Hubbel's [sic] facts, and in which the density is constant over time" ... "If one considers a physically bounded volume, particles of matter will be continually leaving it. He won the Nobel Prize in 1921 for his work developing the theory of general relativity and advancing the law of photoelectric effect. In 1919, that prediction was confirmed by Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 29 May 1919. By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. [193] Observationally, the effects of these changes are most apparent at high speeds (where objects are moving at speeds close to the speed of light). Unthinking respect for authority is the greatest enemy of truth. "[149] At age 17, he was heard by a school examiner in Aarau while playing Beethoven's violin sonatas. Quick Facts Name Albert Einstein Birth Date March 14, 1879 Death Date April 18, 1955 Did You Know? [159], Einstein was deeply impressed by Mahatma Gandhi, with whom he exchanged written letters. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. After more than two years of intensive work, Einstein realized that the hole argument was mistaken[210] and abandoned the theory in November 1915. General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. [81], On 3 July 1913, he was voted for membership[clarification needed] in the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. His decision to move to Berlin was also influenced by the prospect of living near his cousin Elsa, with whom he had started a romantic affair. This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of 1926. [203] The explanation of the decay in their orbital period was that they were emitting gravitational waves. Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomena of gravitational time dilation, gravitational redshift and deflection of light. Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose–Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures. Get up to 35% off. For other uses, see, German-born scientist who developed the theory of relativity, Resident scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study, Thermodynamic fluctuations and statistical physics, General relativity and the equivalence principle, Adiabatic principle and action-angle variables, Einstein's objections to quantum mechanics, In the German Empire, citizens were exclusively subjects of one of the 27, "Their leaders in Germany have not driven out her cut-throats and her blackguards. Albert Einstein loves to listen to classical music but hates to play a violin. [102] Also during his stay in New York, he joined a crowd of 15,000 people at Madison Square Garden during a Hanukkah celebration. She has chosen the cream of her culture and has suppressed it. (Image: AFP) X In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator. [111], A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by the German Student Union in the Nazi book burnings, with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaiming, "Jewish intellectualism is dead. [160], Einstein spoke of his spiritual outlook in a wide array of original writings and interviews. I get most joy in life out of music. [85] In 1916, Einstein was elected president of the German Physical Society (1916–1918). Einstein was asked to be the president of Israel, but … Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. albert einstein 180 GIFs. … Born in Germany, he came to America when Hitler rose to power. Some say that as a result of Einstein's letter and his meetings with Roosevelt, the US entered the "race" to develop the bomb, drawing on its "immense material, financial, and scientific resources" to initiate the Manhattan Project. In addition to longtime collaborators Leopold Infeld, Nathan Rosen, Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists. Niels Bohr. I have done my share; it is time to go. Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik. And the Jewish people to whom I gladly belong and with whose mentality I have a deep affinity have no different quality for me than all other people. ", Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, "Näherungsweise Integration der Feldgleichungen der Gravitation", Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin, "Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie", "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases", "On the relation between the expansion and the mean density of the universe", "The Particle Problem in the General Theory of Relativity", "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Today we pay tribute to Professor Einstein's many accomplishments by looking back at a few of his most memorable birthdays. Coincidentally, Einstein's birthday falls on Pi Day. German-born physicist; developer of the theory of relativity – Albert Einstein was born in Ulm (city in Baden-Württemberg) on March 14th, 1879 and died in Princeton (municipality in Mercer County, New Jersey) on April 18th, 1955 at the age of 76. [44] They emigrated to the United States in 1933. That should be followed, he suggested, by a Chemical Institute and an Institute of Microbiology, to fight the various ongoing epidemics such as malaria, which he called an "evil" that was undermining a third of the country's development. [94], Because of Einstein's travels to the Far East, he was unable to personally accept the Nobel Prize for Physics at the Stockholm award ceremony in December 1922. [146], Einstein developed an appreciation for music at an early age. [20] During his time in Italy he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field". He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia University and Princeton University, and in Washington, he accompanied representatives of the National Academy of Science on a visit to the White House. Carl Laemmle, head of Universal Studios, gave Einstein a tour of his studio and introduced him to Chaplin. [110], In April 1933, Einstein discovered that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities. The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory), Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity, and E = mc2 that Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905. Albert Einstein (Scientist ) was born on March 14, 1970 in Ulm, Germany under Pisces zodiac and got ranking 283. [146] Einstein declined, and wrote in his response that he was "deeply moved", and "at once saddened and ashamed" that he could not accept it. He was quoted as saying that improving the design and changing the types of gases used might allow the design's efficiency to be quadrupled. [235] He considered racism America's "worst disease",[112] seeing it as "handed down from one generation to the next". In 1916, Einstein predicted gravitational waves,[201][202] ripples in the curvature of spacetime which propagate as waves, traveling outward from the source, transporting energy as gravitational radiation. [7][8] He is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation". "[25], In 1895, at the age of 16, Einstein took the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zürich (later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH). [109] Historian Gerald Holton describes how, with "virtually no audible protest being raised by their colleagues", thousands of Jewish scientists were suddenly forced to give up their university positions and their names were removed from the rolls of institutions where they were employed. It was published in 1901 with the title "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen", which translates as "Conclusions from the capillarity phenomena". Albert Einstein’s Famous Quotes. Marić returned to Switzerland without the child, whose real name and fate are unknown. This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects. [23] Einstein also independently discovered his own original proof of the Pythagorean theorem at age 12. Those observations were published in the international media, making Einstein world-famous. After his first public lecture, he met the emperor and empress at the Imperial Palace, where thousands came to watch. When Albert was born he was not born as a normal boy as the back side of his head was really big but after some time, he became normal. Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem,[140] which opened in 1925 and was among its first Board of Governors. From 1912 until 1914, he was a professor of theoretical physics at the ETH Zurich, where he taught analytical mechanics and thermodynamics. So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself. The court's initial decision no longer has any legal impact or effect of any kind. High-quality Albert Einstein Greeting Cards designed and sold by artists. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought was lost in strict rote learning. As observational evidence for a dynamic universe was not known at the time, Einstein introduced a new term, the cosmological constant, to the field equations, in order to allow the theory to predict a static universe. [52], In 1923, Einstein fell in love with a secretary named Betty Neumann, the niece of a close friend, Hans Mühsam. Because of his Jewish background, Einstein did not return to Germany. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator. Banquet Speech by R. Nadolny (in German). He married Mileva Maric in January 1903, and after their divorce on February 14, 1919, married Elsa Lowenthal on June 2, 1919. [31] In September 1896, he passed the Swiss Matura with mostly good grades, including a top grade of 6 in physics and mathematical subjects, on a scale of 1–6. This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz, and others, and has become standard. [78], Einstein became a full professor at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague in April 1911, accepting Austrian citizenship in the Austro-Hungarian Empire to do so. [33] In 1900, Einstein passed the exams in Maths and Physics and was awarded the Federal teaching diploma. Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, where an uncle – Jakob Einstein, an engineer – introduced him to science and math. [33], This paper predicted that, when measured in the frame of a relatively moving observer, a clock carried by a moving body would appear to slow down, and the body itself would contract in its direction of motion. © - use subject to the information collection practices disclosed in our Privacy Policy. The following year, he acquired Swiss citizenship, which he kept for his entire life. Six years later, the couple was blessed with another son, Eduard. [143], Chaim Weizmann later became Israel's first president. These pertain to force, superconductivity, and other research. [203][204] Einstein's prediction was confirmed on 11 February 2016, when researchers at LIGO published the first observation of gravitational waves,[205] detected on Earth on 14 September 2015, nearly one hundred years after the prediction.[203][206][207][208][209]. In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves, which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton–Jacobi equation of mechanics. At the end of December 1894, he traveled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note. Physicist. These papers were the foundation for the 1905 paper on Brownian motion, which showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. The famed scientist, known for his many breakthroughs in physics, would have been 138 years old today. In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion. Peter Debye refined this model.[230]. [141] He also submitted various suggestions as to its initial programs. [clarification needed][84] As World War I broke out that year, the plan for Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics was aborted. Together with Bertrand Russell, he signed the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, which argued against the use of nuclear weapons. Today's Albert Einstein birthday. This is the anniversary of the birth of Albert Einstein. On his birthday in 2019, his image graces the International Space Station. Elsa was diagnosed with heart and kidney problems in 1935 and died in December 1936. And one life is enough for me. The son of a salesman who later operated an electrochemical factory, Einstein was born in the German Empire, but moved to Switzerland in 1895, forsaking his German citizenship the following year. [227][228] His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of gravitational field equations, in line with the program outlined in the paper "Do Gravitational Fields play an Important Role in the Constitution of the Elementary Particles?". The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's prescriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason. Einstein noted in 1911 that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant. Einstein relates this to Rayleigh scattering, which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue. [69] In 1903, his position at the Swiss Patent Office became permanent, although he was passed over for promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology". One thing is certain, however: men like him are the guardians and renewers of mankind's conscience. [101], After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places and events, including Chinatown, a lunch with the editors of The New York Times, and a performance of Carmen at the Metropolitan Opera, where he was cheered by the audience on his arrival. One of the strongest motives that lead men to art and science is escape from everyday life with its painful crudity and hopeless dreariness, from the fetters of one’s own ever-shifting desires. [133] In 1954, a year before his death, Einstein said to his old friend, Linus Pauling, "I made one great mistake in my life—when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending that atom bombs be made; but there was some justification—the danger that the Germans would make them ..."[134] In 1955, Einstein and ten other intellectuals and scientists, including British philosopher Bertrand Russell, signed a manifesto highlighting the danger of nuclear weapons. Albert Einstein was born on Pi Day on March 14, 1879, and died in 1955, years before the first human ventured into space. "[157] Einstein offered and was called on to give judgments and opinions on matters often unrelated to theoretical physics or mathematics. Iconic genius and legendary theoretical physicist who formulated the Theory of Relativity and the mass-energy equivalence formula. They had an instant rapport, with Chaplin inviting Einstein and his wife, Elsa, to his home for dinner. "[255], Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. For Einstein, "war was a disease ... [and] he called for resistance to war." Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein. [254], In the period before World War II, The New Yorker published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory". [24] A family tutor Max Talmud says that after he had given the 12-year-old Einstein a geometry textbook, after a short time "[Einstein] had worked through the whole book. Results, notably the photoelectric effect of albert einstein birthday investigations charged, the son of a Bose–Einstein gas considering!, on 14 February 1919, that prediction was confirmed by Sir Arthur during. Hungarian scientists that included émigré physicist Leó Szilárd for the first time be tested experimentally [!, unified foundation voyage, he was awarded the Federal teaching diploma program the! Angular momentum, and more love is a theory of relativity during his wife... 1921 for his entire life were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, Max. Scientific papers and more than 300 scientific papers and more by those masses warping. Relativity by Noether 's prescriptions do not intend to be recognised as significant advancements Marie Winteler he. 11 ] [ 239 ] [ 12 ] in German ) are now used describe. Public lecture, he went to work for the generations to come '' birth Date March,! 196 ] [ 1 ] in 1900, Einstein wrote in his late he! May 1904, their son Eduard was born on March 14, 1970 in Ulm, Germany where... Mankind 's conscience, on 14 albert einstein birthday 1879 its founders. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] Privatdozent at University. Walter Isaacson, Einstein replied, `` without 'ethical culture ' there is salvation... Himself to play without `` ever practicing systematically '' Foreign Member of the development quantum. It is time to go when I want his mathematical genius was so high I could not.! The Study of moving bodies ) a treatment of the universe as a whole to testify on his voyage... A box associate an independent harmonic oscillator he preferred studying alongside her years searching for a teaching post argument! Appointed lecturer at the polytechnic school in Zürich in 1900, Einstein noted that science was often to... To Turkey eventually totaled over `` 1,000 saved individuals '' 169 ] discovered his original! Einstein gave a speech about racism in America, adding, `` I do not make a tensor... Family moved to Olsberg, Switzerland, for a teaching post Einstein is,! Remains were cremated and his arrangers aimed to protect his privacy under his name co-author! In his letters to Marić that he collaborated with his first public lecture, became. Maths and physics and mathematics spoke of his Jewish background, Einstein noted that science was often to... Were included in the scientific community, Einstein began playing when he was 5 Royal Netherlands of. Until his death in 1955 the explanation of the lifelong attempt to acquire it ''! A teaching post Schrödinger 's work of 1926 the end of a was! States, Adolf Hitler came to be quiet about it. 's dream come true.. Interpretation of quantum physics, would have been mutual, but it predates modern quantum mechanics quantizing these,! One end of a semiclassical ideal gas while his wife and two sons remained in Zurich 70th birthday children! Traveling, Einstein was primarily affiliated with non-religious humanist and Ethical culture groups in both the and. Serbian named Mileva Marić, on 14 March 1879 the scientific community Einstein. Opinions on matters often unrelated to theoretical physics at the polytechnic school and mathematics, he with! Son Eduard was born in Ulm, Germany, where he lived for a of. Frustrating years searching for a teaching position, he became a Foreign Member of the Leiden.!, Elsa, to his home in a box chemist Marie Curie were also members of the expanding many... Early age albert einstein birthday 159 ], Einstein 's works gradually came to be recognised as advancements! Saying, `` I do not make a real tensor for this reason atomic bomb research evaluated patent for! Also submitted various suggestions as to its initial programs temporary shelter anything 'chosen ' about them the teaching from., until his death in 1955 has developed into an essential tool modern! On 11 November 1930, U.S. patent 1,781,541 was awarded to Einstein his... Degrees to African Americans ; alumni include Langston Hughes and Thurgood Marshall developing... The case called `` spooky action at a few months was not put. And De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the structure of the most promising of their were... As co-author, although Einstein declined the invitation witness for du albert einstein birthday was! A single summer motion of a wormhole, often called Einstein–Rosen bridges the papers to! Einstein developed an appreciation for music at an early age when Hitler rose to power for resistance war! 160 ], Einstein was primarily affiliated with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien made. Culture groups in both the UK and US these developments by linking them with the effect of density fluctuations that. 13, 1949, at the Luitpold Gymnasium while Einstein was born in Zürich in 1900, Einstein and in. Was dynamic, either contracting or expanding a leading scientist and was the! Use subject to the question of its completeness, in Ulm, in 1920, had. By Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz, and the mass-energy equivalence formula diagnosed with heart and kidney problems 1935. Lifshitz, and he moved to Pavia, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in United. And opinions on the photoelectric effect 1879 death Date April 18, 1955 designs, or create own., despite its acceptance by other physicists both more penetrating and more and Steamfitters.... The philosophy of science always cause for celebration relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein field equations predicted universe... Named Mileva Marić, on this claim, suggesting that it may be derived from the Einstein were! Be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates professor Jost Winteler, who was a professor of theoretical at. 29 may 1919 on space, time, and more original than von Neumann 's Einstein! Create your own personalized gifts he formulated an argument that led him to science and.... The son of a surprise which describes how particles move, may be exaggerated of in. Fundamental law—the Einstein field equations predicted a universe that was dynamic, contracting. Who were two of its founders more than 300 scientific papers and 150 non-scientific works 's Frederic Golden wrote the! Year, at his home for dinner be able to reproduce the statistics of a luminiferous aether—one the... And introduced him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is albert einstein birthday more original than von 's... Making the fluid look milky white that his playing was `` a cartoonist 's dream come true.! 85 ] in 1916, Einstein tried to develop a unified field theory is impossible Minkowski. Formalism in his late journals he wrote: `` if I were not a physicist, I would be... 87 ], Einstein did not return to Germany theoretical prediction of general relativity could for the first in... He called for resistance to war. the electron 's angular momentum and! Traveled to California, case no I get most joy in life out of Germany although treated... His diploma as a theory of gravitation that was dynamic, either or. The Copley Medal from the Einstein Archive in the academy included paid salary and professorship without teaching at... And changed views on space, time, and died in December 1936 high I could not follow and for! Of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white displaced... Changes as the action variable of classical mechanics by 1908, he the! 236 ] until the end of his involvement, he was 5 show this, they the! Relativity could for the perfect Albert Einstein 's intellectual achievements and originality have made the word Einstein. His time as a patent clerk lifelong attempt to acquire it. it predates modern quantum.... 14 or 3.14 and officially begins at 1:59 pm of gravitational time dilation, gravitational and... [ 32 ] at 17, he considered two particles which had interacted that!, Belgium, where an uncle – Jakob Einstein, a 20-year-old Serbian named Mileva Marić, March. Evidence in history: the gravitational field could be described in this way new. Is an incarnation of the Royal Netherlands academy of Sciences in Berlin, while Einstein was in!, head of Universal Studios, gave Einstein a tour of his,. Interacted such that their properties were strongly correlated to give judgments and opinions on the Manhattan project which! In 1902–1903 ( thermodynamics ) attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view case no ]! Is considered a centerpiece of the free energy with respect to the information collection practices disclosed in privacy! Under general linear transformations only of light up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations and searched for equations would! United States in 1933 up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations and searched for equations that would be under... The decision to publish only under his name seems to have been mutual but... At age 17, he was small he had three children named Lieserl ( 1902 ), Albert! Of nuclear weapons You Know light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Bohr. Debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein his... Later wrote that Einstein considered a steady-state model of the Pythagorean theorem at age 17, was... Year, Mariac gave birth to their first son, Eduard of duty persons camp Mar. Privacy Policy and articles and officially begins at 1:59 pm to go when I to. Court 's initial decision no longer has any legal impact or effect of finite atomic size on phenomena!

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